The brain has a central role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure.1

Multiple hormones, such as ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin, play an important role in appetite regulation.1

Metabolic adaptions to weight loss include2-6

Role of hormones in regulating appetite


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  1. Badman MK, Flier JS. The gut and energy balance: visceral allies in the obesity wars. Science. 2005;307(5717):1909-1914.

  2. Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(17):1597-1604.

  3. Schwartz A, Doucet É. Relative changes in resting energy expenditure during weight loss: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2010;11(7):531-547

  4. Sumithran P, Proietto J. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss. Clin Sci (Lond). 2013;124(4):231-241.

  5. Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL. Adaptive thermogenesis in humans. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34(suppl 1):S47-S55.

  6. Rosenbaum M, Kissileff HR, Mayer LE, Hirsch J, Leibel RL. Energy intake in weight-reduced humans. Brain Res. 2010;1350:95-102.